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Kildwick Almanac for the Cowling Township 1869
Supplied by: Norman R Binns
 
Area - 4715 acres 2 roods 14 perches
Population -1815
Houses - 376
Rateable value - 36221 16sh 2d (there were 77 ratepayers who paid 114sh 2d}.
Overseers - John Binns and James Emmott
Guardian - John Binns
Waywarden - Nathan Binns
Churchwardens - James Watson senior and James Watson junior
Constables - John Binns, Joseph Smith and James Whitaker
Police constable - R. Wallbank
Assessor of Income - James Shuttleworth
Assessed Taxes - James Watson

Holy Trinity Church - Minister - Rev. G. Bayldon ,B.A., Vicar
Services - morning 10-30, afternoon 3 o'clock

Wesleyan Chapel, Ickornshaw
Services -10-30 a.m, 1-30 and 5-30 p.m.
Sunday scholars - 250, teachers - 50
Library - 260 volumes

United Methodist Free Churches - Minister - Rev. S. Sellars
Services -10-30a.m., 1-30 and 5-0 p.m.
Sunday scholars - 300, teachers - 50
Library - 200 volumes

Baptist Chapel, Cowling Hill - Minister - Rev. Nathaniel Walton, whose services are gratuitous.
Services - 10-30 a.m and 2-0, p.m., and in the evening a public prayer meeting with occasional addresses, and during the week there were meetings for prayer &c., on Thursday and Saturday evenings at 7-30 p.m..
Sunday scholars -109, teachers - 22 (11 males and 11 females}
Library - good books mainly from the Tract Society.

Primitive Methodist Chapel, Middleton - Minister - Rev. J.Ayrton
Services - afternoon 1-30, evening 5-00.

National School - Teachers - Mr. & Mrs. Ogden Davy
Scholars - boys - 70, and girls - 39

United Methodist Free Churches Day School - Headteacher - Mr. William Gott
Scholars - 70
Payments - 2d and 3d per week
Lessons in - reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography.
Evening school 18, (limited to 20 scholars}
Lessons in - reading, writing, arithmetic and grammar

Temperance Society - Members -174. President - Rev. G. Bayldon, Secretary - W. Tempest,
Treasurer - W. Emmott

Band Of Hope Society - Members 207

Ancient Order Of Foresters - Court of Compassion, No. 104, established August 1 St., 185 l, held at the Black Bull Inn, capital of about 1450, members - 232, secretary - John Forte

Friendly Society for Females

Yorkshire Penny Savings Bank - Open for deposits every other Monday, from 7 to 8 p.m., at Mr. Gott's schoolroom, managers - Rev. G. Bayldon, Mr. W. Marchbank, Mr. W. Gott and Mr. W. Heaton

Post Office - Arrivals of mail from Crosshills 8-45 a.m., delivery 8-45 a.m., box closes at Middleton at 4-25 p.m., despatch 4-30 p.m., New Road Side Wall Box 5-0 p.m.

Feast Sunday - Sunday nearest the 11th of July; ruled by St. Peter's Day

Carriers - James Gott - to Keighley on Mondays and Fridays; Masons Arms,
W. Brigg - butter factor - to Keighley on Wednesdays; Kings Arms.
T. Binns - to Skipton on Saturdays; Red Lion.

Words commonly used in Craven in 1869:- Bain - near, Barn (Bahn} - going, Bawk - a cross beam, Big - to build, Elden - fuel, Fair - evidently, Fearfull - very, Fettle - condition, Flay - to make afraid, Flyte - to scold, Gaumless - half silly, Gird - fit, or spasms, Girn - to grin, Grave - to dig, Hafer - oats (haver bread I oat cake), Hooind - much tired, Hoss - to cough, Kittle - to tickle, Lake I Laik - to play, Lig - to lie I lay down, Lover - chimney, Mack - sort, Neive - fist, Pride - fineness, Raum - room,
Rawt I Rort - to roar, Reek - to smoke, Scaly - mean, Scaumy - shining, Shippon - a cow house, Sile - to pour down with rain, Skuggy - gloomy, Stee - a ladder, Steyen - to bespeak I to speak, Team I Teem - to pour out, Throssel - a thrush (bird), Titter - soon sooner, Watter-taums - spittle in the mouth, Wark - to ache. Most of these words can be traced through Anglo-Saxon and Danish, to an Icelandic origin.

History of Cowling

Cowling was a subordinate Fee under the castle at Skipton, then as a mesne-manor (mesne - intermediate, intervening [middle English]), then subdivided into the three manors of Colling, Stotthill and Ickornshaw. A charter of Free Warren (catch your own rabbits without being arrested for poaching) was granted to Geoffrey de Nevile in the 9th year of Edward 1sts reign.
In the reign of Henry 6th Richard Russel of Wighall in the county of York, gent., releases to Thomas Mering Esq., and his wife, the manor of Cowling.
Towards the end of the reign of Henry the 8th it, (Cowling), belonged to Thomas Blakay, who was hanged, and his lands and property were confiscated, and given to Henry the first Earl of Cumberland.
Cowling remained in the hands of the Earls of Cumberland well into the reign of Elizabeth the first.. It was then sold in three manors, Ickornshaw and `Colling' to the freeholders, and Stothill to ---- Parker, Esq. a minor.

Carr Head

The Copley family used to belong to Carr Head along with the manor of Collinge. Edmund Laycock then gained possession of Carr Head through the death of his cousin Hugh Laycock, who had purchased it from Alvery Copley. Edmund then gifted it to his son Edmund by Deed along with the manors of Collinge and Laycock, `stipulating that his son should `maintain him for his natural life, and provide him with a horse, and suitable furniture to ride on (a saddle)'. Edmund, the son, married in 1641 and had two daughters, of whom Mary, the elder, was married, in 1672 to Richard Wainman of Draughton. Marrying Mary, he obtained Carr Head and the manors of Cowling and Laycock. This was the start of the VVainman dynasty at Carr Head.

Flodden field

`Collyng' men at the Battle of Flodden Field

The following people, along with others from nearly every village in Craven, went to the Battle of Flodden Field, which was fought on the 9th. September 1513 at the summons of the Lord Clifford of Skipton Castle.

Piers Tillotson, - who had a bow and an able horse etc.
Xrofer Laycock - armed with a bow
Nicholas Scarborough - armed with a bow
Henry Waller - armed with a bow
William Hargreaves (uncle)
Robert Hargreaves (nephew)
Four of these men were yeomen

Battle of Towton

The battle of Towton (near Tadcaster} was fought on Palm Sunday in 1461, with the
Lord Clifford Of Skipton Castle and his Followers fighting for the House of Lancaster, who were defeated suffering great loss of life. There were around 39,000 killed that day.

Prices of provisions and wages

In the year 1310 :- Wheat was 6 shillings per quarter, and Oats were 3 shillings. A Fat Cow was 12 shillings 6 pence, a Sheep was 1sh 2d, a Fat Hog 3sh 4d, and a Fat Goose was 2'd.. Eggs were 'd a dozen (12), and Wine was 4d a gallon (4.5 litres).

In 1320 :- Labourers Wages were 1. per day for the best workmen, and Reapers in the first week of August were allowed 2d. per day for the first week, and 2'd per day for the second week, a Master Carpenter was only allowed 3d per day throughout the whole year, and a Common Carpenter got 2d per day. Best Military Horses were 13sh 4d., a Pair of Shoes were 4d., and a Holy Bible was 33 6sh 8d..

1487 saw the very finest bred Riding Horse for the King costing 16 shillings, a Greyhound cost 14sh 4d., and a Goshawk (a bird of prey} cost 4 shillings. (Hunting and hawking took the place of warring and fighting among the Nobility and gentry, so birds of prey were at an exorbitant price).

In 1531 :- Sugar was 7d a lb (pound), Milk was 11d a gallon, and Eggs were 7'd for 60. Rabbits were 2sh 2d for a dozen, Geese were 7d, a Sirloin of Beef was 2sh 4d, Half of a Fat Calf was 2sh 8d.. A Barrel of Ale was 3sh 8d, a Kilderkin of Beer (half a barrel) was 1sh., and Wine was l 0d per gallon. Currants were 2d a pound, and Common Bread was 1sh 10d per each bushel loaf (2,219 cubic inches or 0.03637 cubic metre).

In 1560 :- 8 Pints of Butter were 1 sh 6d., beef was 8d per stone (14 pounds), and a Leg of Mutton was 5d., and Pullets were 3 for 1 shilling.
 
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